Both flood and drought are a result of variations in the amount of rainfall. The monsoon makes the distribution of rainfall in India not only uneven over space but also over time. Firstly, the rainfall is highly concentrated in a few months of the year and a long period is a dry season.
Secondly, the variability of rainfall is very in most parts of the country. This is mainly a result of the fluctuations in the time of onset and withdrawal of monsoon and the actual amount of rainfall in any given area from one year to the other. Even a slight delay in the onset of the monsoon may cause severe droughts in many parts of the country.
A slightly higher than normal rainfall may, on the other hand, cause serious floods in may parts. Due to the behavior of the monsoon, many areas in the country experienced drought as well as a flood in the same year.
Nearly 35 percent of the total area of the country receives rainfall of less than 75 cm and this region is considered drought-prone. Almost the entire peninsula plateau and the western parts of the northern plains suffer from this environmental hazard.
This area receiving less than 75 cm annual rainfall is also designated as the region of dry zone cultivation.
The flood-prone area in India is also equally extensive. The northeastern region receiving a large amount of rainfall, the lower and middle Ganga Plain, and the delta and lower valley areas of the peninsular rivers are all highly prone to floods.
The reasons for floods in these areas include a large amount of rainfall, seasonal concentration of rainfall over a short period of time, a large amount of silt, and the shallow channels of the Himalayan rivers.
Deforestation leading to an increased rate of erosion increasing the volume of silt in water and choking of drainage channels in the delta regions.
In addition to these regions, the floods are experienced sometimes in the areas of relatively low rainfall also. However, here the floods are less frequent. One of the major causes of floods here, besides the high variability of rainfall, is the lack of developed drainage channels due to the low average rainfall here.
A flood is an overflow of water on normally dry ground. This is most commonly due to an overflowing river, a dam break, snow melting, heavy rainfall. Now-a- day flood have become increasingly frequent in India in major cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, etc major cities. Flood in such major cities leads to increasing the impact on life and property.
Impact and Causes of flood
- The construction of dams is mostly presented in big areas and not in the backward region.
- In big cities, the population is very huge, and people also migrated from rural to urban areas. Therefore in big cities, there is a huge impact on life.
- In urban areas, the slum area is also present. For example- Dharavi in Mumbai is the largest slum in the world and they live in Kaccha house. Due to floods, in their Dharavi leads to loss of property and lives of people who live there.
- Most people get employment in the big cities due to flood-like situation some people also get unemployed especially who are engaged in the unorganized sector of that state.
- Flood also cause the communicable disease and in this pandemic situation flood effect get a verse or hell-like situation for the people and for the government.
The Main Causes of Flood like situation on Urban areas are:
- Deforestation at rapid speed.
- Building road and house and stoping the natural flow of rivers.
- Outdated waterlogging facilities.
- Damage sewage system.
- Change in climate conditions.
- Heavy rain and releasing a large amount of water from the dam which leads to flooding in various areas.
Effect of flood on Humans lives and nature:
- Causing a loss of lives.
- Livelihood destruction.
- Asset damage problem.
- The enormous burden on the government in terms of reconstruction budgets.
- The problem of climatic refugees.
- Destruction of agricultural land and loss of cultivation of the farming product which is the extra burden on farmers. Flood also wash away topsoil.
- Increase or spread of viral and bacterial diseases among humans, plants, and animals.
Needed Step to overcome the flood-:
- Construction of proper dam.
- Timely public alerts about the flood.
- Afforestation at rapid speed.
- Control emissions of greenhouse gases as The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) targeted Global emissions of Carbon dioxide need to decline by limiting global warming to 1.5 °C compared with 2 °C or “Global net human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would need to fall by about 45 percent from 2010 levels by 2030, reaching ‘net zero’ around 2050.
- Proper management of drainage systems in every locality.
- Control in Urbanisation.
FLOOD IS OF COMMON NATURAL DISASTER IN INDIA. FLOOD GENERALLY OCCURS IN THE MONSOON SEASON. THE GOVERNMENT NEEDS TO MANAGE AND CONTROL THE FLOOD BY TAKING EFFECTIVE STEPS TOWARDS IT. BY TAKING ADVANTAGE OF TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENT, IT SEENS EASY TO FIGHT WITH IT.